MICROBIOLOGY - AGAR 微生物學 - 瓊脂
FIRST IT MADE ITS PLACE IN MICROBIOLOGY
THEN IT MADE ITS PLACE IN HISTORY
AGAR - THE HEART OF MICROBIOLOGY 瓊脂 - 微生物學的核心
Known to be at the center of most microbiology labs, the towering stacks of agar plates stand tall to welcome you into the charmed world of microbiology.
In here each plate is an island like home to a menagerie of microorganisms.
Scientifically speaking Agar is a jelly-like substance derived from seaweed species of the group Gelidium, Gracilaria, Pterocladia etc., and It is perhaps microbiology's most important substance. For the longest time Agar has been used as a solid substrate to culture and isolate bacteria.
Besides that Agar is used in a wide range of foods making it an important commodity in the nutrition and food industry. But that's not all. Additionally agar can also be used as a laxative, an appetite suppressant, a vegetarian substitute for gelatin, a thickener for soups, a preservative in fruit preserves, ice cream, and other desserts, a clarifying agent in brewing, and for sizing paper and fabrics.
QUICK FACTS ABOUT AGAR 關於瓊脂的快速事實。
Composition: It is a complex mixture of polysaccharides composed of two major fractions -agarose, a neutral polymer, and agaropectin, a charged, sulfated polymer.
組成：它是由兩種主要組分組成的多醣的複雜混合物 - 瓊脂糖，中性聚合物和瓊脂膠，一種帶電的硫酸化聚合物。
Properties: It is insoluble in cold water, but it swells considerably, absorbing as much as twenty times its own weight of water. It dissolves readily in boiling water and sets to a firm gel at concentrations as low as 0.50%.
Sources:Biological Source - 資料來源：生物來源 -
Gelidium species : Gelidium物種
Pterocladia species : Pterocladia物種
Family - Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyceae (red Algae). : 家庭 - Gelidiaceae，Rhodophyceae（紅藻）。
Geographical Source - Japan, Korea, South Africa, U.S.A., China, Indonesia, Australia and India.
地理來源 - 日本，韓國，南非，美國，中國，印度尼西亞，澳大利亞和印度。
THE JOURNEY 旅程
HE FORGOT. 他忘了。
AND THEN MADE AN UNFORGETTABLE DISCOVERY. 然後做了一個令人難忘的發現。
Agar was accidentally invented in Japan during the 17th century when a forgetful innkeeper left seaweed extract out in the cold. Since then Agar has been used for centuries as a thickener, and to make all manner of deliciously wobbly desserts.
The revolutionary use of Agar as solidifying agent was thought first by Angelina Fannie Hesse, wife of Walter Hesse, who joined Koch's laboratory to do studies on air qualities. The observation by Angelina as to why her jellies and puddings stayed solid even in the hot summer temperatures, made her to tell her husband about agar. She had learned about this heat resisting agent while growing up in New York from a Dutch neighbor who had emigrated from Java. Development of the new agent by Angelina led to a resounding success & today agar is the lifeline of any microbiological study. The best example of Science from Kitchen to Lab.
革命性使用瓊脂作為固化劑首先被Walter Hesse的妻子Angelina Fannie Hesse認為，他加入了Koch的實驗室，從事空氣質量研究。安吉麗娜觀察到為什麼即使在炎熱的夏季溫度下她的果凍和布丁也能保持穩定，這讓她告訴她的丈夫瓊脂。在紐約從一位從爪哇移民過來的荷蘭鄰居長大的過程中，她了解了這種抗熱劑。安吉麗娜開發新藥劑取得了巨大成功，而今天瓊脂是任何微生物研究的生命線。從廚房到實驗室的科學最好的例子。
In December 2015, Nature News reported that agar supplies have been affected by a global shortage of Gelidium seaweed. Because it grows on rocky sea beds and requires turbulent water for a steady supply of nutrients and oxygen, Gelidium cannot be farmed. Instead, it's harvested by divers, or collected when washed ashore by the tide.
Dwindling seaweed populations and overharvesting have led Morocco, currently the world's largest Gelidium supplier, to restrict annual harvests and place quotas on foreign exports. As a result, wholesale agar prices have nearly tripled to US$ 35-45 per kilogram - an all-time high. Thermo Fisher Scientific and Millipore Sigma, two major suppliers of laboratory reagents, have already stopped selling some agar products.
海藻種群減少和過度捕撈導致摩洛哥（目前是世界上最大的Gelidium供應商）限制年度收成並對外國出口實行配額限制。因此，批發瓊脂價格幾乎翻了三倍，達到每公斤35-45美元 - 創歷史新高。Thermo Fisher Scientific和Millipore Sigma是兩家主要的實驗室試劑供應商，已經停止銷售一些瓊脂產品。
If the situation worsens, it's likely that many microbiology labs will have to scale back on experiments. And they might not be the only ones affected.
The global agar market revenue is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of over 4.9% in terms of value and 2.6%, in terms of volume during the forecast period. The global agar market is currently witnessing major trends like the usage of agar in bakery industry.
A global shortage of certain seaweed is causing agar laboratory supplies to go on backorder. The shortage can be traced to newly enforced trade restrictions on the seaweed, arising from environmental concerns that the algae are being overharvested. It is unclear how deeply the dearth will hit researchers, but it has already pushed wholesale prices of agar.
HiMedia is looking out for cultivation of competitive species of sea-weeds and creating a long-term sustainable and high quality resource of agar.
The scientists at HiMedia are also in the quest to screen hydrocolloids that can act as economical substitutes for agar. This may reduce dependency on agar.
Dehydrated Culture Media - Powder and Granulated Forms / HiEncap™, HiVeg™ and HiCynth™
脫水培養基 - 粉末和顆粒狀/HiEncap™，HiVeg™和HiCynth™
Ready Prepared Media - 準備好的培養基
Animal and Vegetable Hydrolysates - 動植物水解產物
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Systems - 抗菌藥物敏感系統
Culture Media Supplements and Bases - 培養基補充和基礎
Bacteriological Differentiation Aids - 細菌分化輔助
Range of Chromogenic Media - 顯色介質範圍
Lyophilised Microbial Strains - 凍乾的微生物菌株
Food Safety Diagnostic Kits - 食品安全診斷試劑盒