Evolution of Microbiology Media 微生物學培養基的演變 - today 200706
WHY IS MICROBIOLOGY ESSENTIAL? 為什麼微生物學是必需的？
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic microorganisms dominate life on Earth with respect to the number of individuals and biomass. The morphological diversity in the microbial world is much smaller than that of the higher plants and animals. Based on their modes of energy generation and the variety of compounds, the microbial world and especially the world of the Prokaryotes, has many more possibilities than are realized by macroscopic animals and plants.
Compatible Nutrients, essential Gaseous atmosphere and adequate Temperature (NGT) constitute the three simple prerequisites for microbial growth, analogous to Food-Clothing-Shelter for us. Beyond this analogy, there is huge diversity in microorganisms with respect to the specific needs to get their NGT. The variables comprising this NGT are pH, water activity, osmolarity, oxygen, temperature, organic-inorganic media constituents and sometime presence of very complex carbon sources such as vitamins and peptides etc.
兼容Ñ utrients，必需ģ aseous氣氛和足夠Ť emperature（NGT）構成三個微生物生長簡單的先決條件，類似於食品成衣寄託。除了這個類比之外，微生物在獲得NGT的特定需求方面存在巨大的差異。包含該NGT的變量是pH，水活度，滲透壓，氧氣，溫度，有機 - 無機介質成分以及有時存在非常複雜的碳源，例如維生素和肽等。
History of Microbiology Media 微生物學培養基的歷史
Success of any microbiological experiment depends on growth of cells in various media. There was a time when two key advances were required for the field of microbiology to evolve. The first was a sophisticated microscope and the second was a method for rearing (culturing) microorganisms.
Louis Pasteur was a pioneer who used culture medium for growing bacteria in his laboratory for the first time in 1860's. This medium consisted of yeast ash, sugar and ammonium salts..
The Italian biologist, Bartolomeo Bizio, whose work preceded Koch's by 50 years was possibly the first to attempt to grow an organism on a solid medium, using bread as substrate.
Robert Koch (1843-1910), also known as the father of culture media had his first success in bacteriology when he managed the isolation of the bacterial species Bacillus anthracis. This was the first time that any pathogenic organism had been isolated and studied outside of the host's body. In 1881, Koch introduced use of Gelatin as solidifying agent for medium.
In late 1881, Fanny Hesse used agar as solidifying agent in Robert Koch's Lab. In 1884, Fredrick Loeffler added peptone and salt to Koch's basic meat extract formulation. In 1887, Julius Richard Petri, another worker in Koch's laboratory, modified the flat glass plate and produced a new type of culture dish for media to avoid contamination and ease of storage and stacking. By the 1890s the culture media we know today, with petri dishes, peptones and agar, were developed. Later several diagnostic, selective differentials, enrichment etc. type media were developed over many decades.
羅伯特·科赫（Robert Koch，1843-1910），也被稱為培養基之父，他在細菌物種炭疽桿菌（Bacillus anthracis）的分離過程中首次在細菌學方面取得了成功。這是第一次在宿主體外分離和研究任何致病生物。1881年，Koch介紹了使用明膠作為培養基的固化劑。
1881年末，Fanny Hesse在羅伯特科赫實驗室使用瓊脂作為固化劑。1884年，Fredrick Loeffler將蛋白腖和鹽添加到Koch的基本肉類提取物配方中。1887年，科赫實驗室的另一名工作人員朱利葉斯·理查德·佩特里改造了平板玻璃板，並為介質生產了一種新型培養皿，以避免污染，便於儲存和堆放。到19世紀90年代，我們開發了培養基，培養皿，蛋白腖和瓊脂。後來幾十年來開發了幾種診斷，選擇性差異，富集等類型的培養基。
Soon media preparation has become a very specialized and skilled business and helped all microbiologists in understanding the microbial world and its benefit for mankind. The evolution of media went ahead hand-in-hand with discovery of novel classes of micro-organisms, which opened a wide applied area of microbiology.
New Industrial Avenues 新的工業途徑
Emmanual Merck of Darmstadt, Germany began to manufacture peptones in 1892, which gave European microbiologists the choice of purchasing their media ingredients rather than fabricating it.
America's first media firm, Digestive Ferments Company, Difco was founded in 1895. Baltimore Biological Laboratories (BBL), now acquired by Becton Dickinson, was established in 1935. And another company named the Oxoid appeared in the 1950's.
Difco成立於1895年，是美國第一家培養基公司Di disstive F erments Co mpany 。現在被Becton Dickinson收購的巴爾的摩生物實驗室（BBL）成立於1935年。另一家名為Oxoid的公司出現在1950年代。
India saw one or two minor players in media manufacturing business but none of them manufactured the holistic ingredient formulation for Microbiology.
HiMedia began as a culture media manufacturer on the Indian scenario with complete formulations of dehydrated ingredients like BD, Oxoid and Merck.
In 1972, after ensuring and comparing the quality with other international brands, HiMedia initiated its era of making high quality media at the cost affordable for Indian researchers.
Within two years in 1974, HiMedia expanded its base by creating 20 Microbiology culture media which were frequently used in Pharmaceutical and Clinical labs.
In no time all the microbiologists and biologists in India started liking the product and spread across the globe.
Today after four decades, HiMedia is a leader in providing world class microbiological media and its ingredients. With reach spread across 150 countries and warehouses in Europe and USA, this company has definitely had a remarkable journey.
Over the years, HiMedia has been constantly evolving by adapting latest technologies, customizing according to the scientist's requirements, complying with regulatories, taking care of safety issues and ease of use etc.
The vibrant team of Scientists at HiMedia have carved out a niche for themselves in the art of making media for Microbiology.
Today HiMedia has evolved the field of Microbiology in forms, contents and formats providing all possible choices of media to the diverse global clientele.
HiMedia hopes to continue introducing more and more media based on R&D work as per the changing and challenging demands of a global market.