The Study of Pluripotent Stem Cells 多能幹細胞的研究
It's Mature. It's also the Future. 它很成熟。這也是未來。
PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS (PS CELLS) 多能幹細胞（PS細胞）
Prevalent for their immense ability of self-renewal the Pluripotent Stem Cells (PS cells) have the potential to give rise to mature cells in a special tissue with their ability to differentiate. Hence, they are known to be pluripotent cells. Apart from the Embryonic Stem Cells (ES cells), adult cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) also hold similar characteristics.
As Pluripotent Stem Cells are rarely found in the tissues, their identification and purification must be carefully done before being studied.
The Bridge between the Bench and Bedside. 長凳和床邊之間的橋樑。
Pluripotent Stem Cells play a crucial role in basic research, therapeutics application, regenerative medicine and clinical application. Although practicality of moving from bench side to bed side involves challenging steps, scientists and doctors around the globe are definitely pushing it forwards through their cutting edge research for understanding of the molecular mechanism of stem cell functioning, progress of medical solutions and betterment of human health.
The Mature Fight in a Calm Way. 成熟的戰鬥以平靜的方式。
Stem cells are isolated, identified, cultured, characterized and checked for their differentiation properties in basic research.
To reach appropriate therapies, stem cells have to undergo preclinical studies, which primarily involves three steps. Firstly, cells of interest are subjected for the evaluation of infusion, homing and regenerative abilities in appropriate animal model. Secondly, mode of action lying under the treatment is studied. Thirdly, methods are developed for mass production and cells are stored for clinical trials. In the end, clinical trials are performed which evaluate safety, root of administration to patient and the efficacy of the treatment as per current good clinical practices (GCP) guidelines.
Despite the challenges mentioned above, stem cells continue to expand their territory in therapeutic and clinical applications. In this article, we summarize the progress of these applications of stem cells in last scientific year, 2016. When we consider these applications, ES cells and iPSCs mostly are the game changers.
THERAPEUTIC AND CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 治療和臨床應用
The journey of iPSCs started from understanding Yamanaka-transcription factors that together changed mouse somatic cells in a way to have properties like embryonic stem cells called iPSCs. The advances in research of last decade in reprogramming somatic cells have brought iPSCs in light for their use in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, disease modelling and stem cell based therapy.
iPSC derived 'retinal pigment epithelial' RPE cells are being studied for its clinical application for the treatment of age-related degeneration (AMD) in which central vision is blurred creating difficulties in straight-headed activities.
Natural Killer (NK) cells were proved to be significantly effective for treating ovarian cancer. In a recent study, natural killer cells isolated from peripheral blood and those derived from iPSCs were compared for tackling ovarian cancer in mouse xenograft model. These NK cells were introduced in mouse model via intraperitoneal injection. In the survival comparison, mice with iPSCs derived NK cells improvised the viability from 73th day to 97th day. Thus, potential of iPSCs of being able to differentiate into NK turns out to be innovative way of treatment in ovarian cancer. For evaluation of therapeutics products ESCs, 13 studies are in clinical trials in 2016.
Luo J. and his group performed studies on stem-graft in myocardium of animal model. Reprogrammed stem cells were hypothesized to be best suitable for repairing myocardium that is chronically damaged. After going through 10 years of preclinical and translation studies Menashe P. and his group files the first clinical case report where for severe heart failure treatment, effective use Human ESC derived cardiac progenitor cells is elaborated.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which are traditionally retrieved from bone marrow can now be obtained from peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood (CB). HSCs are under clinical trials majorly in the field of neurological disorders, including cerebral palsy, autism, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, stroke, and hearing loss.
Monogenic disorders (MGD) are disorders caused by single gene mutation and causing ill-effects on human health. There are no treatments available for MGD, however patient-derived stem cells can provide promising treatment for MGD. Simple and effective gene editing tools like RNA-CRISPR/Cas9 have corrected genes in MGD patients using specific iPS and adult stem cells. Shwank et. al. has found that stem cell with single gene corrected for the mutation, is able to proliferate and form organoids.
單基因疾病（MGD）是由單基因突變引起的疾病，對人類健康造成不良影響。沒有可用於MGD的治療方法，但是源自患者的干細胞可以為MGD提供有希望的治療。簡單有效的基因編輯工具如RNA-CRISPR / Cas9已經使用特異性iPS和成體幹細胞修正了MGD患者的基因。Shwank等。人。已發現具有單基因的干細胞經突變校正，能夠增殖並形成類器官。
Ending Challenges. Starting Creation. 結束挑戰。開始創作。
Before complete acceptance of stem cell based therapeutics and their clinical applications, critical evaluation of these methods comes into picture, as the stem cells of interest maintained in vitro bear chances of high karyotype abnormalities. Even these cells population can lose its heterozygosity posing serious threat to individual. To abolish such variations and alterations happening within the cell population, screening procedure needs to be followed strictly.
HiMedia's role stepped into the market of stem cells and primary cells since last decade(2017) with the aim of providing high quality and pure cell lines of Indian genetic pool for Indian scientist at affordable rate and thus, helping scientists omitting their first step of isolation of cells in basic research.
HiMedia has large number of media for different cells lines and also provide media in customized formats.